DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.17454 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 17454: Development and Validation of an Artificial Intelligence 12-Lead Electrocardiogram-Based Mutation Detector for Congenital Long QT Syndrome

Johan M Bos, Kan Liu, Zachi Attia, Peter A Noseworthy, Paul Friedman, Michael J Ackerman
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Over 100 FDA-approved medications, electrolyte perturbations, and many disease states can prolong the QT interval in up to 10% of patients. In contrast, approximately 1 in 2,000 people have congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) hallmarked by pathological QT prolongation secondary to LQTS-causative mutations.

Hypothesis: an artificial intelligence (AI) deep neural network (DNN) analysis of the 12-lead ECG can distinguish patients with LQTS from those with acquired QT prolongation.

Methods: The study cohort included 1599 patients with genetically confirmed LQTS and over 2.5 million controls from Mayo Clinic’s ECG data vault. Every patient/control with ≥ 1 ECG above age- and sex- specific 99 th percentile values for QTc [> 460 ms for all patients (male/female) < 13 years of age, or > 470 ms for men and > 480 ms for women above this age] was included. An AI-DNN involving a multi-layer convolutional neural network was developed. To simulate screening conditions, patients were matched at a ratio of 1:2,000 (incidence of LQTS) or 1:200 (balance of LQTS vs acquired QT prolongation in a tertiary referral center).

Results: Among the 1,599 patients with LQTS, 808 (> 50%) had ≥ 1 ECG with QTc above the aforementioned QTc thresholds (2,987 ECGs) compared to 361,069/2.5M controls (14% of Mayo Clinic patients getting an ECG, 989,313 ECGs). Following age- and sex- matching and splitting, the model successfully distinguished LQTS from those with acquired QT prolongation at 1:2,000 matching with an AUC of 0.937 (accuracy 89%, sensitivity 81%, specificity 90%, PPV 0.05, NPV 0.99). Furthermore, when matching at a rate that genetically-mediated QT prolongation would be encountered in clinic (1:200), the model still successfully separated the two groups (AUC 0.912, accuracy 88%, sensitivity 78%, specificity 89%, PPV 0.1, NPV 0.99).

Conclusion: For patients with a QTc exceeding its 99 th percentile values seen in health, this novel AI-DNN 12-lead ECG distinguishes abnormal QT prolongation stemming from LQTS versus acquired QT prolongation with high performance characteristics (AUC > 0.93). Even when scaled to referral center and LQTS incidence ratios, a negative AI-DNN signal rules out the presence of a LQTS disease-causative mutation with 99% negative predictive value.

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