DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.16155 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 16155: Achieving Coronary Artery Disease Regression: A Triumph of Lifestyle Modification and Optimal Medical Therapy

asmaa Ahmed, Andrew Takla, Ahmed Hussein, Mohamed Mohamed, Ahmed Elkheshen, Tejan Patel, Gaurav Sharma
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early recognition of risk factors and targeting them using lifestyle modifications and pharmacological measures is vital for secondary prevention. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive management in achieving marked regression of CAD.

Case presentation: A 45-year-old female with a history of type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia with markedly elevated lipoprotein (A) of 233 nmol/L presented with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). She had a strong family history of CAD and denied smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed preserved left ventricular systolic function with an ejection fraction of 50%, regional wall motion abnormalities in the form of inferior wall hypokinesia, and mild mitral regurgitation. She underwent coronary angiography (CA) which revealed significant three-vessel CAD. Figure 1

Decision making: She underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to the RCA and PDA with two overlapping drug-eluted stents and plain balloon angioplasty to the PL branch. The patient adhered to strict lifestyle modification and was prescribed optimal anti-ischemic and anti-diabetic medications. She lost 22 lbs over two years, her LDL went down from 178 to 14 mg/dl and A1c from 12.2 to 6.8. During follow up, she started to complain of dyspnea on exertion for two weeks. Despite the marked laboratory improvement and despite she was found to be anemic at that time which can explain her symptoms, decision was to proceed to CA given her high pretest probability. A repeat CA showed marked regression in her CAD. Figure 2

Conclusion: Regression of coronary artery disease is a reality giving hope for not just stopping disease progression but achieving reduction in plaque size with optimal medical therapy, where pharmacological measures and lifestyle modifications work synergistically.

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