DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.15296 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 15296: Incidence and Predictive Factors for Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Transcatheter Device Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

Marissa E Adamson, Allen Ligon, Shannon Hamrick, Marcos Mills, Shazia Bhombal, Sarah E Hash, Erik Michelfelder
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a known complication after ligation or device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Recently, an increasing number of premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants undergo transcatheter device closure of PDAs. Afterload sensitivity of the immature myocardium may be expected to result in important changes in LV ejection fraction (EF) post-procedure. Aim: To evaluate incidence and magnitude of LV dysfunction after device closure of PDA in ELBW infants.

Methods: Subjects undergoing PDA device closure from 2020-2022 who were ELBW (<1 kg) and extremely premature (gestational age <29 weeks) at birth were included. A single cardiologist reviewed each pre- and post-intervention echocardiogram and calculated LVEF. Mildly depressed function was defined as an LVEF <53%, moderately depressed as LVEF <40% and severely depressed as LVEF <30%.

Results: There were 62 subjects who met inclusion criteria. Mean gestational age and birth weight were 24.8 weeks and 646 g, respectively. Mean age and weight at intervention were 7.9 weeks and 1718 g, respectively. All patients had normal LVEF pre-procedure (mean LVEF 68%) with a significant decline post-procedure to 60% (p<0.001) (Figure). Post-procedure, 80.6% of subjects maintained normal LVEF. Of 12 subjects who developed depressed function, 83% (n=10) had mildly depressed function and 17% (n=2) had moderately depressed function. There was no significant difference in post-procedure LV dysfunction in relation to pre-procedural PDA size, left atrial dilation, or LV dilation on univariate analysis. All subjects recovered function without additional inotropic support with a median time to observed normal LVEF of 5 days.

Conclusions: LV dysfunction develops in 19% of ELBW infants undergoing PDA device occlusion, is usually mild in severity, and normalizes in all subjects. The size of PDA or degree of left heart dilation does not predict LV dysfunction in this population.

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