DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.14536 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 14536: Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis: Illuminating the Risk Factors and Sequelae of a Rare and Often Incidentally Diagnosed Pathology

Daniel Sykora, Robert Churchill, David Hodge, Steven Callori, Damon Houghton, Robert D McBane, Waldemar E Wysokinski
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is often diagnosed incidentally but data on its management and outcomes are sparse.

Methods: We queried our institutional health record to identify patients ≥18 years of age diagnosed with PVT. Demographics, medications, risk factors, diagnostics, treatment, and sequelae were collected by manual chart review. Suspected tumor thrombus cases were excluded.

Results: Seventy-two patients with PVT were identified (median age 62 years, 50% male). The cohort was mostly white (85%), overweight (BMI 26 kg/m), with frequent comorbidities including hypertension (44%), hyperlipidemia (38%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (29%), and history of venous thromboembolism (21%). The most common PVT risk factors were active malignancy (54%), lobectomy (21%), surgery within 30 days (19%), and extrinsic vein compression (15%). Most PVT were diagnosed by CT (86%) and affected a single vein (86%), mostly commonly the left upper PV (32%). Laboratory studies revealed median platelet count 243 х 10 9 cells/L (n=58) and D-dimer elevated in 6 patients when measured (67%, n=9). About one-third of patients were on therapeutic anticoagulation (37%) at PVT diagnosis. Most patients were started on new anticoagulation (78%, n=56), with unfractionated heparin as the most common initial therapy (68%). Of those anticoagulated, few were treated with a limited duration (20%, n=11, median 54 d, IQR 95) while most received indefinite anticoagulation (80%, n=45), primarily warfarin (45%), apixaban (24%), or enoxaparin (21%). Serial imaging was obtained in 69% (n=50, median 65 d, IQR 116) and demonstrated resolution of PVT in 32 (64%) patients. Common PVT complications noted were as follows: 4 year risk of LA thrombus (26%, 12/16 anticoagulated), mechanical ventilation (13%), pneumonia (9%), and ischemic stroke (9%, 5/6 anticoagulated).

Conclusions: PVT is often associated with active malignancy, lobectomy, recent surgery, and extrinsic vein compression. Most PVT resolve on serial imaging. Clinicians should be aware of potential high-risk sequelae including LA thrombus and stroke as well as high anticoagulation failure rates when managing PVT.

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