DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.13771 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 13771: Left Atrial Size and Frailty Indexes Predict Poor Prognosis in Hospitalized Elderly Patients With Heart Failure

Masakazu Miura, Shinichi Okuda, Kazuhiro Murata, Yasuhiro Ikeda
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a cardiac index used to diagnose and determine heart failure (HF) treatment strategy. However, in elderly patients with HF, LVEF is not a good predictor of prognosis. We have previously found that patient outcomes are associated with left atrial (LA) size and noncardiac factors such as malnutrition, muscle weakness, and cognitive dysfunction. This study examined whether a combination of LA function and noncardiac indicators related to frailty can predict an accurate prognosis in hospitalized elderly patients.

Methods: Hospitalized HF patients over 65 years of age from January 2019 to December 2022 were consequently enrolled in the Yamaguchi Prefectural Grand Medical (YPGM) Center. We divided three categories: sinus rhythm (SR) with normal LA, SR with LA enlargement (LAE), and persistent or chronic atrial fibrillation (AFib) with LAE. Cox proportional hazard analyses were employed to determine the prognosis factors, i.e., the primary outcome as all-cause death or HF readmission and the secondary outcome as major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE).

Results: Overall, 676 HF patients were admitted to YPGM Center. Of those, 462 (median age 84.0, 47% female) met the study criteria. During the follow-up of 204.0 days, 46 patients reached all-cause death (10%), 82 experienced HF readmission (18%), and 116 developed MACCE (25%). LA volume index (LAVI) (Hazard ratio [HR]: 1.012; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.003-1.022; p = 0.013) and handgrip strength (HR: 0.917; 95%CI: 0.868-0.970; p = 0.002) were associated with the primary outcome. Nutritional status assessed by geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was associated with the primary and secondary outcome (HR: 0.956; 95%CI: 0.927-0.985; p = 0.003, and HR: 0.937; 95%CI: 0.909-0.966; p < 0.001, respectively), but neither AFib nor LVEF. The adverse events were lower in SR with the normal LA group than in other groups. Furthermore, a multiple logistic regression model, including LAVI, AFib, GNRI, and handgrip strength, most accurately predicted the primary outcome than those with the AFib or LVEF.

Conclusion: The value of benefits as a prognosis lies more in LAVI and frailty indexes than in the presence of AFib and LVEF in elderly HF patients.

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