DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.13309 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 13309: Severe Cardiomyopathy as Harbinger of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome From Epstein Barr Infection

Phuong Uyen Vo, Daljeet Singh, Kenneth D Varian, Gabriela Orasanu
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a rare condition characterized by multiple organ injury after a viral infection. Features include fever, elevated inflammatory markers, evidence of acute viral infection, and at least three of the following clinical criteria: peri/myocarditis or acute ventricular dysfunction, rash, encephalopathy, shock, and gastrointestinal symptoms. This is a case of nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP) as a MIS-A manifestation after an Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) infection.

Description of Case: A 38 year-old female, with a recent pneumonia, presented with two weeks of fever, dyspnea, hemoptysis, fatigue, and right leg swelling. Initial ECG showed sinus tachycardia. Laboratory testing showed leukocytosis 15.5k/uL, NT pro BNP 6470 pg/mL, C-reactive protein 234 mg/L, lactic acid 3.7 mmol/L, creatinine 1.5 mg/dL (baseline 0.7 mg/dL), AST 372 U/L, ALT 658 U/L. RSV, influenza, COVID-19, HIV, hepatitis B/C, and urine antigens were undetected. Imaging showed deep vein thrombosis in right leg veins and bilateral pulmonary emboli with infarcts. Heparin infusion was started. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed biventricular systolic failure with an ejection fraction of 20%. Coronary angiography showed no coronary artery disease. Cardiac MRI showed dilated NICMP with minimal late gadolinium enhancement. The nadir of her cardiac index was 1.2 L/min/m 2. She was started on nitroprusside infusion for early-stage cardiogenic shock. Extensive workup for thrombophilia, autoimmune, amyloidosis, infectious causes were all normal except for an elevated EBV early antigen IgG which indicated past infection within a few months, aligning with patient’s reported pneumonia symptoms before presentation. She clinically improved and was bridged to heart failure guideline directed medical therapy and apixaban on discharge.

Discussion: Though MIS-A has been reportedly associated with COVID-19, EBV can cause MIS, with severe cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, hepatopathy, and pulmonary infarcts requiring intensive cardiac care, in a normal young adult.

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