DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.12995 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 12995: South Asian Representation in Cardiovascular Disease Randomized Controlled Trials

Nishant Uppal, Aniruddh Patel, Deepak Bhatt, Pradeep Natarajan
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: South Asian individuals are at higher risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) compared to individuals of European descent. Although US practice guidelines uniquely recognize South Asian ancestry as a risk-enhancing factor for ASCVD, the degree to which South Asian individuals are included in clinical trials is unknown. We sought to evaluate South Asian representation in major cardiovascular disease (CVD) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in major medical journals.

Hypothesis: South Asian individuals are under-represented relative to the global South Asian population in CVD RCTs.

Methods: We extracted citations of CVD RCTs reported from 2018 to 2022. Studies were identified as RCTs based on reported randomization of participants and the publication of post-randomization data. We determined self-reported representation rates for South Asian individuals across all studies and further stratified representation rates by clinical trial phase, type of intervention under investigation, and country of origin. Post-randomization participant representation rates were estimated for South Asian individuals and compared to other self-reported racial/ethnic groups.

Results: 588,329 participants were enrolled across 128 included trials. Conditions studied included CVA (17.97%), HF (12.50%), CAD (11.72%), HTN (7.81%), ASCVD screening/prevention (7.81%), and others. 2,753 of all CVD RCT participants were South Asian individuals, corresponding to a representation rate of 0.47%. No South Asian individuals had available post-randomization data, whereas post-randomization data were reported for 164,035 white individuals, 20,459 Black individuals, and 6,040 Hispanic individuals.

Conclusions: Although South Asian individuals comprise nearly a quarter of the global population and have well-documented excess CVD risk, they represent a small minority of CVD trial participants. No RCTs reported South Asian participant-level data, which limits the generalizability of study findings to South Asians.

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