DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.12981 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 12981: Digital Health for the Management of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Letícia B Ferreira, Milena S Marcolino, Rodrigo Lanna de Almeida, Thais M Pedroso, Samuel Rosa Ferreira, Antonio L Ribeiro, Eric Boersma
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have progressively replaced vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). However, in certain conditions, especially antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical heart valves and rheumatic mitral stenosis, VKAs remain the only drugs with established safety and efficacy. In low-income contexts, they are frequently the preferred option due to the high costs of DOACs. Its management is often challenging, and different digital health strategies have been implemented to support it.

Aims: To systematically review the evidence on the impact of digital health strategies to support anticoagulation management compared to usual care on thromboembolic and bleeding events.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials were searched in 5 databases from inception to September 2021. Two independent reviewers performed study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB2). Total thromboembolic events, major bleeding, mortality, and time in therapeutic range were assessed. Results were pooled using random effect models.

Results: In total, 25 randomized controlled trials were included (25,746 patients) and classified as moderate to high risk of bias. Telemedicine resulted in a trend of reduced risk of thromboembolic events (13 studies, relative risk [RR] 0.75, 95% CI 0.53-1.07; I2=42%), comparable rates of major bleeding (11 studies, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.07; I2=0%) and mortality (12 studies, RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.78-1.20; I2=11%), and an improved time in therapeutic range (16 studies, mean difference 3.38, 95% CI 1.12-5.65; I2=90%). In the subgroup of multitasking intervention, telemedicine resulted in an important reduction of thromboembolic events (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.48).

Conclusions: Digital health strategies resulted in similar rates of major bleeding and mortality, a trend for fewer thromboembolic events and better anticoagulation quality compared to standard care. Given the potential benefits of digital health-based care, such as greater access to remote populations, these findings may encourage further implementation of these strategies for anticoagulation management, particularly as part of multifaceted interventions for integrated care of chronic diseases.

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