DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.12772 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 12772: In Hospital Outcomes With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alone vs Combined With Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Device

Fatima Lakhani, Bertrand Ebner, Sukhpreet Kaur, Rosario Colombo, Mrudula Munagala
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is often used to support patients with cardiogenic shock. However, it is associated with an increase in systemic afterload which can lead to worsening cardiac function. The use of a percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) plus ECMO has emerged as a strategy to offload the left ventricle, with some studies showing improved outcomes.

Hypothesis: The use of ECMO plus pLVAD is associated with improved outcomes compared to the use of EMCO alone.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was queried from 2011-2018 for relevant ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes to identify patients with cardiogenic shock supported with ECMO or ECMO plus a pLVAD (Ecpella) during the same admission. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between groups were compared. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for pre-specified co-variates for outcomes. p-value was considered significant if <0.001.

Results: Of 20,171 patients with cardiogenic shock supported with ECMO, 16,064 (79.6%) were treated with only ECMO and 4,107 (20.4%) were treated with ECMO plus pLVAD. Patients in the Ecpella group were more likely to be male (72% vs 66%), have a history of hypertension (50% vs 47%), diabetes (21% vs 15%), chronic kidney disease (27% vs 22%), coronary artery disease (54% vs 44%), myocardial infarction (6% vs 4%, p<0.001 for all). Age (55.6 vs 55.2 years (p = 0.09) and rate of atrial fibrillation and flutter were not significantly different. After adjusting for significant variables, patients in the Ecpella group, had higher rates of mortality (OR 1.2; CI [1.1-1.3]), stroke (OR 1.3; CI [1.2-1.5]), and major bleeding (OR 1.5; CI [1.4-1.7], p < 0.001 for all). The rate of inpatient dialysis was lower in the Ecpella group (OR 0.7; CI 0.7-0.8; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Cardiogenic shock patients treated with ECMO plus pLVAD had worse outcomes compared to patients treated with ECMO alone. Although it is possible that patients treated with ECMO plus pLVAD had a more critical presentation, further studies are needed to evaluate these findings.

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