DOI: 10.3390/v16010057 ISSN: 1999-4915

AAV Vectors Pseudotyped with Capsids from Porcine and Bovine Species Mediate In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery

Darrick L. Yu, Laura P. van Lieshout, Brenna A. Y. Stevens, Kelsie J. (Jagt) Near, Jenny K. Stodola, Kevin J. Stinson, Durda Slavic, Sarah K. Wootton
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are among the most widely used delivery vehicles for in vivo gene therapy as they mediate robust and sustained transgene expression with limited toxicity. However, a significant impediment to the broad clinical success of AAV-based therapies is the widespread presence of pre-existing humoral immunity to AAVs in the human population. This immunity arises from the circulation of non-pathogenic endemic human AAV serotypes. One possible solution is to use non-human AAV capsids to pseudotype transgene-containing AAV vector genomes of interest. Due to the low probability of human exposure to animal AAVs, pre-existing immunity to animal-derived AAV capsids should be low. Here, we characterize two novel AAV capsid sequences: one derived from porcine colon tissue and the other from a caprine adenovirus stock. Both AAV capsids proved to be effective transducers of HeLa and HEK293T cells in vitro. In vivo, both capsids were able to transduce the murine nose, lung, and liver after either intranasal or intraperitoneal administration. In addition, we demonstrate that the porcine AAV capsid likely arose from multiple recombination events involving human- and animal-derived AAV sequences. We hypothesize that recurrent recombination events with similar and distantly related AAV sequences represent an effective mechanism for enhancing the fitness of wildtype AAV populations.

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