DOI: 10.1097/hc9.0000000000000328 ISSN: 2471-254X

A versatile method to profile hepatitis B virus DNA integration

Kento Fukano, Kousho Wakae, Naganori Nao, Masumichi Saito, Akihito Tsubota, Takae Toyoshima, Hideki Aizaki, Hiroko Iijima, Takahiro Matsudaira, Moto Kimura, Koichi Watashi, Wataru Sugiura, Masamichi Muramatsu
  • Hepatology


HBV DNA integration into the host genome is frequently found in HBV-associated HCC tissues and is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. Multiple detection methods, including hybrid capture-sequencing, have identified integration sites and provided clinical implications; however, each has advantages and disadvantages concerning sensitivity, cost, and throughput. Therefore, methods that can comprehensively and cost-effectively detect integration sites with high sensitivity are required. Here, we investigated the efficiency of RAISING (Rapid Amplification of Integration Site without Interference by Genomic DNA contamination) as a simple and inexpensive method to detect viral integration by amplifying HBV-integrated fragments using virus-specific primers covering the entire HBV genome.

Methods and Results:

Illumina sequencing of RAISING products from HCC-derived cell lines (PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells) identified HBV-human junction sequences as well as their frequencies. The HBV-human junction profiles identified using RAISING were consistent with those determined using hybrid capture-sequencing, and the representative junctions could be validated by junction-specific nested PCR. The comparison of these detection methods revealed that RAISING-sequencing outperforms hybrid capture-sequencing in concentrating junction sequences. RAISING-sequencing was also demonstrated to determine the sites of de novo integration in HBV-infected HepG2-NTCP cells, primary human hepatocytes, liver-humanized mice, and clinical specimens. Furthermore, we made use of xenograft mice subcutaneously engrafted with PLC/PRF/5 or Hep3B cells, and HBV-human junctions determined by RAISING-sequencing were detectable in the plasma cell-free DNA using droplet digital PCR.


RAISING successfully profiles HBV-human junction sequences with smaller amounts of sequencing data and at a lower cost than hybrid capture-sequencing. This method is expected to aid basic HBV integration and clinical diagnosis research.

More from our Archive