A therapeutic strategy to target distinct sources of IgE and durably reverse allergyAndre Limnander, Navneet Kaur, Seblewongel Asrat, Carley Tasker, Anita Boyapati, Li-Hong Ben, John Janczy, Paulina Pedraza, Pablo Abreu, Wen-Chi Chen, Stephen Godin, Benjamin J. Daniel, Harvey Chin, Michelle DeVeaux, Karen Rodriguez Lorenc, Andres Sirulnik, Olivier Harari, Neil Stahl, Matthew A. Sleeman, Andrew J. Murphy, George D. Yancopoulos, Jamie M. Orengo
- General Medicine
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key driver of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions and allergic disorders, which are globally increasing in number and severity. Although eliminating pathogenic IgE may be a powerful way to treat allergy, no therapeutic strategy reported to date can fully ablate IgE production. Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) signaling is required for IgE class switching, and IL-4Rα blockade gradually reduces, but does not eliminate, IgE. The persistence of IgE after IL-4Rα blockade may be due to long-lived IgE + plasma cells that maintain serological memory to allergens and thus may be susceptible to plasma cell–targeted therapeutics. We demonstrate that transient administration of a B cell maturation antigen x CD3 (BCMAxCD3) bispecific antibody markedly depletes IgE, as well as other immunoglobulins, by ablating long-lived plasma cells, although IgE and other immunoglobulins rapidly rebound after treatment. Concomitant IL-4Rα blockade specifically and durably prevents the reemergence of IgE by blocking IgE class switching while allowing the restoration of other immunoglobulins. Moreover, this combination treatment prevented anaphylaxis in mice. Together with additional cynomolgus monkey and human data, our studies demonstrate that allergic memory is primarily maintained by both non-IgE + memory B cells that require class switching and long-lived IgE + plasma cells. Our combination approach to durably eliminate pathogenic IgE has potential to benefit allergy in humans while preserving antibody-mediated immunity.