DOI: 10.3390/life14010076 ISSN: 2075-1729

A Systematic Review on Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography (PSMA PET) Evaluating Localized Low- to Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Tool to Improve Risk Stratification for Active Surveillance?

Jianliang Liu, Jordan Santucci, Dixon T. S. Woon, Rick Catterwell, Marlon Perera, Declan G. Murphy, Nathan Lawrentschuk
  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Active surveillance remains a treatment option for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT) has emerged as a useful modality to assess intraprostatic lesions. This systematic review aims to evaluate PSMA PET/CT in localized low- to intermediate-risk PCa to determine its role in active surveillance. Following PRISMA guidelines, a search was performed on Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Only studies evaluating PSMA PET/CT in localized low- to intermediate-risk PCa were included. Studies were excluded if patients received previous treatment, or if they included high-risk PCa. The search yielded 335 articles, of which only four publications were suitable for inclusion. One prospective study demonstrated that PSMA PET/CT-targeted biopsy has superior diagnostic accuracy when compared to mpMRI. One prospective and one retrospective study demonstrated MRI occult lesions in 12.3–29% of patients, of which up to 10% may harbor underlying unfavorable pathology. The last retrospective study demonstrated the ability of PSMA PET/CT to predict the volume of Gleason pattern 4 disease. Early evidence demonstrated the utility of PSMA PET/CT as a tool in making AS safer by detecting MRI occult lesions and patients at risk of upgrading of disease.

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