DOI: 10.3390/app14010328 ISSN: 2076-3417

A Supervised Machine Learning Model for Regression to Predict Melt Pool Formation and Morphology in Laser Powder Bed Fusion

Niccolò Baldi, Alessandro Giorgetti, Alessandro Polidoro, Marco Palladino, Iacopo Giovannetti, Gabriele Arcidiacono, Paolo Citti
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science

In the additive manufacturing laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, the optimization of the print process parameters and the development of conduction zones in the laser power (P) and scanning speed (V) parameter spaces are critical to meeting production quality, productivity, and volume goals. In this paper, we propose the use of a machine learning approach during the process parameter development to predict the melt pool dimensions as a function of the P/V combination. This approach turns out to be useful in speeding up the identification of the printability map of the material and defining the conduction zone during the development phase. Moreover, a machine learning method allows for an accurate investigation of the most promising configurations in the P-V space, facilitating the optimization and identification of the P-V set with the highest productivity. This approach is validated by an experimental campaign carried out on samples of Inconel 718, and the effects of some additional parameters, such as the layer thickness (in the range of 30 to 90 microns) and the preheating temperature of the building platform, are evaluated. More specifically, the experimental data have been used to train supervised machine learning models for regression using the KNIME Analytics Platform (version 4.7.7). An AutoML (node for regression) tool is used to identify the most appropriate model based on the evaluation of R2 and MAE scores. The gradient boosted tree model also performs best compared to Rosenthal’s analytical model.

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