DOI: 10.1097/hjh.0000000000003539 ISSN:

A set of urinary peptides can predict early renal damage in primary hypertension

Lirong Lin, Jiangwen Ren, Chunxuan Wang, Mei Mei, Luquan Zheng, Jurong Yang
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Internal Medicine


Renal diseases caused by primary hypertension (HTN) are often asymptomatic without sensitive markers for early diagnosis and prediction, easily progressing to severe and irreversible renal damage in patients with clinical manifestations. This study explored whether a set of urinary peptides could serve as a potential biomarker for early prediction of renal damage in HTN.


Urinary peptides level of healthy individuals, HTN + normoalbuminuric and HTN + albuminuria patients were compared, and 22 baseline data including sex, age, renal function, hypertensive fundus lesions were collected. Patients diagnosed with HTN, albuminuria, and normal renal function were followed up. According to the follow-up results, the cut-off value of a set of urinary peptides in predicting hypertensive renal injury was calculated and analyzed in the high-risk and low-risk groups of HTN patients for its performance in detecting early hypertensive renal injury.


Among a sum of 319 participants, average urinary peptides level was significantly higher in patients with HTN than in normal individuals. A total of 147 HTN patients with normal albuminuria were followed up for a mean of 3.8 years. Thirty-five patients showed urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) at least 30 mg/g for three consecutive times. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the urinary peptides cut-off value for evaluating new-onset proteinuria in patients with HTN was 0.097. Based on this cut-off value, 39 and 108 patients were included in the high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively. Specifically, compared with patients in the low-risk group, those in the high-risk group showed significantly longer duration of HTN, higher proportions of hypertensive fundus lesions and at least 30 mg/g uACR, and higher levels of homocysteine (Hcy), cystatin C (CysC), beta-2 microglobulin (β2-MG), and uACR. 76.9% of high-risk patients had significantly higher new-onset proteinuria than the low-risk group. Correlation analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between urinary peptides and UACR (r = 0.494, P < 0.001). The incidence of new-onset albuminuria was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group, as shown by Cox regression analysis. The areas under the curve of urinary peptides, Hcy, β2-MG and CysC were 0.925, 0.753, 0.796 and 0.769, respectively.


A set of urinary peptides is a predictor of new-onset proteinuria in patients with HTN, therefore, it can be used for diagnosing patients with early renal injury in patients with HTN, contributing to early prevention and treatment of hypertensive nephropathy.

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