DOI: 10.3390/e25091274 ISSN:

A Semi-Supervised Stacked Autoencoder Using the Pseudo Label for Classification Tasks

Jie Lai, Xiaodan Wang, Qian Xiang, Wen Quan, Yafei Song
  • General Physics and Astronomy

The efficiency and cognitive limitations of manual sample labeling result in a large number of unlabeled training samples in practical applications. Making full use of both labeled and unlabeled samples is the key to solving the semi-supervised problem. However, as a supervised algorithm, the stacked autoencoder (SAE) only considers labeled samples and is difficult to apply to semi-supervised problems. Thus, by introducing the pseudo-labeling method into the SAE, a novel pseudo label-based semi-supervised stacked autoencoder (PL-SSAE) is proposed to address the semi-supervised classification tasks. The PL-SSAE first utilizes the unsupervised pre-training on all samples by the autoencoder (AE) to initialize the network parameters. Then, by the iterative fine-tuning of the network parameters based on the labeled samples, the unlabeled samples are identified, and their pseudo labels are generated. Finally, the pseudo-labeled samples are used to construct the regularization term and fine-tune the network parameters to complete the training of the PL-SSAE. Different from the traditional SAE, the PL-SSAE requires all samples in pre-training and the unlabeled samples with pseudo labels in fine-tuning to fully exploit the feature and category information of the unlabeled samples. Empirical evaluations on various benchmark datasets show that the semi-supervised performance of the PL-SSAE is more competitive than that of the SAE, sparse stacked autoencoder (SSAE), semi-supervised stacked autoencoder (Semi-SAE) and semi-supervised stacked autoencoder (Semi-SSAE).

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