DOI: 10.3390/ijms241713114 ISSN:

A Scoping Review on Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Small Vessel Disease: Molecular Insights from Human Studies

Daniela Jaime Garcia, Audrey Chagnot, Joanna M. Wardlaw, Axel Montagne
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Small vessel disease (SVD) is a highly prevalent disorder of the brain’s microvessels and a common cause of dementia as well as ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Though much about the underlying pathophysiology of SVD remains poorly understood, a wealth of recently published evidence strongly suggests a key role of microvessel endothelial dysfunction and a compromised blood–brain barrier (BBB) in the development and progression of the disease. Understanding the causes and downstream consequences associated with endothelial dysfunction in this pathological context could aid in the development of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools and provide promising avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. In this scoping review, we aim to summarise the findings from clinical studies examining the role of the molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in SVD, focussing on biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction detectable in biofluids, including cell adhesion molecules, BBB transporters, cytokines/chemokines, inflammatory markers, coagulation factors, growth factors, and markers involved in the nitric oxide cascade.

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