Antonio David Martin-Barrado, Diego Gomez-Baya

A Scoping Review of the Evidence of the 5Cs Model of Positive Youth Development in Europe

  • General Medicine

In the last 20 years, evidence has been found that supports the “5Cs” of the Positive Youth Development (PYD) model developed by Lerner and his colleagues in the United States. This model considers adolescents as active elements who may acquire the resources and strengths to develop positive relationships with others. However, few studies have focused on its generalization to other contexts. Therefore, the aim of the present scoping review is to examine the evidence of the 5Cs model (Confidence, Competence, Caring, Connection and Character) in Europe. A search was carried out in the international Web of Science database for articles published in Europe between 2013 and June 2023, obtaining 123 articles. Subsequently, after applying the inclusion criteria, 23 articles were included. The findings agreed that men have higher levels of Competence and Confidence, while women scored higher in Connection, Caring and Character. Furthermore, many studies stated that higher scores in Connection, Competence, Character and Confidence are related to better mental health, higher academic performance and greater social and environmental contribution. Consequently, it is crucial to increase the number of interventions based on this model to result in future adults who are healthy, happy and engaged with society. Finally, future lines of research are discussed, as well as the importance of researchers carrying out more intervention programs.

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