DOI: 10.3390/met13091512 ISSN:

A Review on Hardfacing, Process Variables, Challenges, and Future Works

Durga Tandon, Huijun Li, Zengxi Pan, Dake Yu, Willy Pang
  • General Materials Science
  • Metals and Alloys

Hardfacing is an efficient and economical surfacing technique widely used by heavy industries to remediate worn components in service or to enhance the component’s wear characteristics components prior to use. Efficient hardfacing for any targeted application requires precise consideration and understanding of the deposition process, consumables, and substrates. It is also essential to understand the process variables and issues that can occur during the deposition processes, such as dilution and defects in the deposit, including residual stress-induced cracking. Significant research has been published over many years on several aspects of hardfacing, primarily focusing on abrasive wear, corrosion, and impact characterisation using different welding methods and alloy compositions. This paper primarily focuses on reviewing the prior hardfacing literature to systematically summarise the considerations and selection criteria for hardfacing processes and materials. It also presents a discussion on key process variables, such as welding parameters and number of surfacing layers, highlighting their influences during the hardfacing deposition procedure. This paper further discusses issues and challenges in hardfacing practices, such as dilution and cracking. One significant issue investigated is the thermal damage to high-strength steel substrates, with the measurement and characterisation of the damage being key elements. The focus of this investigation is to discuss the optimisation of hardfacing high-strength steel substrates and to communicate potential research areas and prospective applications in the hardfacing industry.

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