DOI: 10.1111/cyt.13342 ISSN: 0956-5507

A review of the directly sampled endometrial cytology on LBC samples: Classification, microscopic criteria and beyond

Yoshiaki Norimatsu, Yoshinobu Maeda, Natalia Malara, Franco Fulciniti, Tadao K. Kobayashi
  • General Medicine
  • Histology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


The Yokohama System for Reporting Endometrial Cytology (TYS) has been proposed by an expert meeting under the auspices of the International Academy of Cytology (IAC) in May 2016 at the IAC in Yokohama. Since its introduction, the TYS has been receiving worldwide acceptance, and this review aims to assess its global impact. The adoption of endometrial cytology as a diagnostic procedure has been hampered in the past by difficulties arising in interpreting the cellular findings due to a number of factors (such as excess blood, cellular overlapping and the complex physiology of endometrium). Recently, the use of liquid‐based cytology (LBC), with its ability to remove blood and mucus and to distribute cells uniformly in a thin layer on the slide, has provided an opportunity to re‐evaluate the role of endometrial cytology. LBC is a useful tool in the cytologic diagnosis and follow‐up of endometrial abnormalities, which remains complementary to the emerging molecular diagnostic cytopathology. The study of LBC from endometrial cytology could be challenging since it is affected by numerous look‐alikes and diagnostic pitfalls. This review discusses these various entities and takes into consideration the ancillary techniques that may be useful in the diagnostic procedure. In conclusion, our review of the published data suggests that the TYS is a valid classification scheme that has been widely accepted by cytopathologists globally, is highly reproducible and makes a valuable contribution to clinical therapeutic management. At present, molecular cytopathology is a rapidly evolving field of modern cytopathology, which underlines the effective interplay between genomics and cytology. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of the drawbacks of endometrial cytopathology, particularly in terms of endometrial cancer diagnosis and molecular testing.

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