DOI: 10.3390/molecules29010036 ISSN: 1420-3049

A Review of Distribution and Profiles of HBCD in Different Environmental Media of China

Jinglin Deng, Wenbin Liu, Lirong Gao, Tianqi Jia, Yunchen He, Tianao Mao, Javid Hussain
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is the most important flame retardant that has been used in Expanded Polystyrene foam and Extruded Polystyrene foam in the past forty years across the world. China was the major producer and user of HBCD, and the total HBCD production was about 0.3 million tons. Although HBCD was completely banned in China in 2021 because of its long-range transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity, there is still a lot of residue in the environment. Therefore, we reviewed multiple studies concerning the distribution of HBCD in diverse environmental matrices, such as in the air, dust, soil, water, sediment, and biota. Results revealed that HBCD levels in different environments in China present geographical variation and were at a high level compared with other countries. In all environmental media, relatively high HBCD concentrations have been found in industrial and urban areas. Industrialization and urbanization are two important factors that influence the concentration and distribution of HBCD in the environment. In terms of isomer, γ-HBCD was the dominant isomer in soil, water, and sediment, while in the biota α-HBCD was the predominant isomer.

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