DOI: 10.1111/edt.12878 ISSN:

A retrospective comparative study of maxillofacial injury patterns caused by electric scooters and bicycles

Seong Joon Lee, Ji Hun Kim
  • Oral Surgery



The emergence of shared stand‐up electric scooters has led to an increase in their usage and, subsequently, an increase in the incidence of maxillofacial trauma. This study aimed to investigate the trauma pattern associated with the use of stand‐up electric scooters compared with that related to the use of bicycles, which was a popular mode of personal mobility before the emergence of stand‐up electric scooters.

Materials and Methods

This study investigated the medical records of patients who visited Wonju Christian Hospital for maxillofacial trauma due to the use of stand‐up electric scooter and bicycles between November 1, 2017 and October 31, 2022. Maxillofacial trauma was analyzed based on medical records, including those in the evaluation results of teeth, maxillofacial bones, and soft tissues.


Crown fractures and tooth avulsions were observed more frequently with the use of stand‐up electric scooters than with the use of bicycles. In contrast, crown‐root fractures, tooth subluxation, and extrusive luxation were more commonly observed in bicycle riders. Additionally, the proportion of root fractures was similar between the two groups. However, no vertical root fractures were observed in patients who rode bicycles. The maxillofacial bone fracture rates between the two groups were similar, although the fracture patterns were different.


The number of patients using stand‐up electric scooters is increasing, and they are likely to have a worse prognosis compared with those using existing personal mobility devices.

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