DOI: 10.1175/2007mwr1978.1 ISSN:

A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)

James A. Carton, Benjamin S. Giese
  • Atmospheric Science


This paper describes the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis of ocean climate variability. In the assimilation, a model forecast produced by an ocean general circulation model with an average resolution of 0.25° × 0.4° × 40 levels is continuously corrected by contemporaneous observations with corrections estimated every 10 days. The basic reanalysis, SODA 1.4.2, spans the 44-yr period from 1958 to 2001, which complements the span of the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis (ERA-40). The observation set for this experiment includes the historical archive of hydrographic profiles supplemented by ship intake measurements, moored hydrographic observations, and remotely sensed SST. A parallel run, SODA 1.4.0, is forced with identical surface boundary conditions, but without data assimilation. The new reanalysis represents a significant improvement over a previously published version of the SODA algorithm. In particular, eddy kinetic energy and sea level variability are much larger than in previous versions and are more similar to estimates from independent observations. One issue addressed in this paper is the relative importance of the model forecast versus the observations for the analysis. The results show that at near-annual frequencies the forecast model has a strong influence, whereas at decadal frequencies the observations become increasingly dominant in the analysis. As a consequence, interannual variability in SODA 1.4.2 closely resembles interannual variability in SODA 1.4.0. However, decadal anomalies of the 0–700-m heat content from SODA 1.4.2 more closely resemble heat content anomalies based on observations.

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