DOI: 10.1097/hjh.0000000000003536 ISSN:

A randomized trial of genotype-guided perindopril use

Sang-Hak Lee, Chan Joo Lee, Yura Kang, Jung Mi Park, Ji Hyun Lee
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Internal Medicine


Cough caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) limits their clinical application and cardiovascular benefits. This randomized trial investigated whether genotype-guided perindopril use could reduce drug-related cough in 20 to 79-year-old individuals with hypertension.


After screening 120 patients and randomization, 68 were assigned to genotyping (n = 41) and control (n = 27) groups. NELL1 p.Arg382Trp (rs8176786) and intron (rs10766756) genotype information was used to subdivide the genotyping group into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with at least one or no risk alleles for ACEI-related cough, respectively. The high-risk subgroup received candesartan (8 mg/day) for 6 weeks, whereas the low-risk subgroup received perindopril (4 mg/day). The control group, which was not genotyped, received perindopril (4 mg/day). The primary outcome variables were cough and moderate/severe cough; the secondary outcome variable was any adverse event.


During the 6-week period, the risk of cough was lower in the genotyping group than in the control group [five (12.2%) and nine (33.3%) participants, respectively; hazard ratio: 0.25; log-rank P = 0.017]. The moderate/severe cough risk was also lower in the genotyping group [one (2.4%) and five (18.5%) participants, respectively; hazard ratio: 0.12; log-rank P = 0.025]. Differences in cough (hazard ratio: 0.56; log-rank P = 0.32) and moderate/severe cough risk (hazard ratio: 0.26; log-rank P = 0.19) between the low-risk and control groups were not significant. The risk of total adverse events was similar between any two groups.


Cough risk was lower during genotype-guided treatment than during conventional treatment. These results support the utility of NELL1 variant data in clinical decision making to personalize renin-angiotensin system blocker therapy use.

Trial Registration: number: NCT05535595 (retrospectively registered at September 7, 2022).

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