Marjory B. Brooks, Robert Goggs, Amelia H. Frye, Jessica Armato, Marnin Forman, Julia Hertl, Michael Koch, John P. Loftus, John Lucy, Brandi Mattison, Julia Merriam, Sarah Shropshire, Laura Van Vertloo, Austin Viall, Dana N. LeVine

A prospective cohort study to identify clinical diagnostic and prognostic markers of primary immune thrombocytopenia in dogs

  • General Veterinary

AbstractBackgroundPrimary immune thrombocytopenia (pITP) in dogs presents a diagnostic challenge, and clinical markers of severity are lacking.ObjectivesIdentify clinicopathologic features that differentiate pITP from secondary ITP (sITP) and markers related to bleeding severity, transfusion, and survival of dogs with pITP.AnimalsNinety‐eight thrombocytopenic dogs (58 pITP and 40 sITP).MethodsClient‐owned dogs with platelet counts <50 000/μL were enrolled in a prospective, multi‐institution cohort study. History and treatment information, through a maximum of 7 days, was recorded on standard data forms. Bleeding severity was scored daily using a bleeding assessment tool (DOGiBAT). At‐admission blood samples were collected for CBC, biochemistry, C‐reactive protein concentration, and coagulation panels, and to measure platelet surface‐associated immunoglobulin G (PSAIg) and expression of platelet membrane proteins and phospholipids. Dogs with evidence of coincident disease were classified as sITP.ResultsNo definitive pITP diagnostic test was found. However, pITP cases were characterized by lower platelet counts, D dimer concentrations, and platelet membrane protein expression than sITP cases. Differentiation between pITP and sITP was further enhanced using logistic regression modeling combining patient sex, coagulation profile, platelet count, D dimer, and PSAIg. A second model of pITP severity indicated that low hematocrit and high BUN concentration were associated with non‐survival. Low hematocrit at admission, but not platelet count or DOGiBAT score, was associated with transfusion.Conclusions and Clinical ImportancePending validation studies, models constructed from at‐admission clinicopathologic findings may improve differentiation of pITP from sITP and identify the most severe pITP cases at the time of presentation.

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