Seunghak Lee, Sunmin Park, Chai Hong Rim, Young Hen Lee, Soon Young Kwon, Kyung Ho Oh, Won Sup Yoon

A Potential Radiomics–Clinical Model for Predicting Failure of Lymph Node Control after Definite Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

  • General Medicine

Background and Objectives: To optimally predict lymph node (LN) failure after definite radiotherapy (RT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) with LN metastases, this study examined radiomics models extracted from CT images of different periods during RT. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively collected radiologic and clinical information from patients undergoing definite RT over 60 Gy for HNC with LN metastases from January 2010 to August 2021. The same largest LNs in each patient from the initial simulation CT (CTpre) and the following simulation CT (CTmid) at approximately 40 Gy were indicated as regions of interest. LN failure was defined as residual or recurrent LN within 3 years after the end of RT. After the radiomics features were extracted, the radiomics alone model and the radiomics plus clinical parameters model from the set of CTpre and CTmid were compared. The LASSO method was applied to select features associated with LN failure. Results: Among 66 patients, 17 LN failures were observed. In the radiomics alone model, CTpre and CTmid had similar mean accuracies (0.681 and 0.697, respectively) and mean areas under the curve (AUC) (0.521 and 0.568, respectively). Radiomics features of spherical disproportion, size zone variance, and log minimum 2 were selected for CTpre plus clinical parameters. Volume, energy, homogeneity, and log minimum 1 were selected for CTmid plus clinical parameters. Clinical parameters including smoking, T-stage, ECE, and regression rate of LN were important for both CTpre and CTmid. In the radiomics plus clinical parameters models, the mean accuracy and mean AUC of CTmid (0.790 and 0.662, respectively) were more improved than those of CTpre (0.731 and 0.582, respectively). Conclusions: Both models using CTpre and CTmid were improved by adding clinical parameters. The radiomics model using CTmid plus clinical parameters was the best in predicting LN failure in our preliminary analyses.

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