DOI: 10.1182/blood-2023-187429 ISSN: 0006-4971

A Phase I/II Study of Combination of ASTX727, Gilteritinib and Venetoclax in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory FLT3 Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Robert Briski, Nicholas J. Short, Naval Daver, Tapan M. Kadia, Courtney D. DiNardo, Musa Yilmaz, Yesid Alvarado Valero, Kenneth Vaughan, Sherry Pierce, Kathryn Montalbano, Jillian Mullin, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Farhad Ravandi
  • Cell Biology
  • Hematology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry


Activating mutations in FLT3 occur in approximately 30% of patients (pts) with AML. Gilteritinib (GILT), a second-generation type I oral FLT3 inhibitor, has been approved in pts with relapsed/refractory (R/R) FLT3-mutated AML. We conducted a phase I/II study to evaluate the combination of decitabine/cedazuridine (ASTX727), venetoclax (VEN), and GILT in pts with FLT3-mutated R/R AML or intermediate-2/high risk MDS/CMML.


This phase I/II study included pts with 1) R/R FLT3-mutated AML or R/R intermediate-2/high risk MDS/CMML or 2) newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated AML unfit for intensive chemotherapy (eligible for phase II only). Here we report the initial data from the R/R cohort. In the phase I portion there was no restriction to the number of prior therapies received; however, in the phase II portion pts who had received ≥3 prior therapies were excluded. Pts with FLT3-ITD and/or TKD mutations were eligible. Pts were required to have a performance status ≤3, total bilirubin ≤2.5 x ULN, ALT/AST ≤3 x ULN, and creatinine clearance ≥30 mL/min. In cycle 1 (C1), pts received decitabine/cedazuridine (35mg/100mg) orally on days 1-5, VEN (ramp-up to 400mg with adjustment for concomitant azole) orally on days 1-28, and GILT orally continuously. The GILT dose ranged from 80mg to 120mg daily during the phase I dose escalation (3+3 design). A bone marrow biopsy was performed on day 14, and if blasts were <5% or the marrow was insufficient/aplastic, the VEN was held. For C2 and beyond, ASTX727 was given for 5 days, VEN was given for 14-21 days and GILT was given continuously. The primary endpoint for the phase I was the MTD; and for the phase II, the overall response (defined as CR, CRh, CRi, or MLFS within 2 cycles of therapy).


The phase I portion is complete with 12 pts enrolled (11 AML, and 1 high-risk CMML). Nine pts received GILT 80mg and 3 received 120mg. No DLTs at either dose level were observed. However, 80mg of GILT was selected for the phase II portion of this study based on the more favorable safety/efficacy profile and better count recovery observed in a parallel study of azacitidine combined with VEN and GILT in AML.

In the combined phase I/II cohort of pts with R/R AML or MDS/CMML, 15 pts have been treated. The median age was 65 years (range 38-83 years). Thirteen pts had a FLT3-ITD mutation (including 2 with a concomitant TKD mutation), and 1 pt had a FLT3-TKDmutation alone. Among pts with a FLT3-ITD, the median allelic ratio was 0.21 (range, 0.09 - 10.6). Among pts with a FLT3-TKD, the median allelic ratio was 0.05 (range, 0.02-0.09). Nine pts had diploid karyotype, 2 had adverse risk karyotype, and 4 had miscellaneous, intermediate-risk cytogenetic findings. The median number of prior therapies was 1 (range 1-9).

Among the 15 pts treated, 8 (53%) responded: 1 (6%) with CRh, 3 (20%) with CRi, and 4 (27%) with MLFS. The pt with an isolated FLT3-TKD mutation (along with del7q) did not respond. The pt with high-risk CMML achieved a CRi. Six of 12 pts who received prior HMA + VEN responded (2 CRi and 4 MLFS), and 2 of 3 pts without prior HMA + VEN responded (1 CRh and 1 CRi).

The median number of cycles received by pts was 2 (range 1-8). Best response was achieved by the end of C1 in 50% of responders, and by the end of C2 in the other 50% of responders. Of the 8 responders, 1 proceeded to alloSCT (with flow positive MRD at 0.3% but FLT3 negative by PCR), 1 is still receiving treatment on protocol with continued response, 5 relapsed without HSCT (median time to relapse 2 months [range, 0.5-7 months]), and 1 died in MLFS. The transplanted pt remains in MRD-negative remission 5 months after alloSCT and is receiving maintenance GILT off protocol. With a median follow-up of 3.8 months (range, 1-18 months), the median overall survival for the cohort was 6.1 months.

There were 3 pts with grade 1-2 toxicities (1 with elevated liver enzymes, 2 with skin rash), 9 pts with grade 3 toxicities (9 with neutropenic fever, 4 of which became septic), no pts with grade 4 toxicities, and 2 patients with grade 5 toxicities (both had neutropenia and died from sepsis while on trial).


In this poor-risk population of pts with R/R FLT3-mutated AML or MDS/CMML, many of whom received prior HMA + VEN, the combination of ASTX727, VEN, and GILT was active, with an ORR of 53%. The trial continues to enroll to the R/R cohort, and is now open for patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated AML who are unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy.

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