DOI: 10.3390/dynamics4010010 ISSN: 2673-8716

A Novel Scalable Quantum Protocol for the Dining Cryptographers Problem

Peristera Karananou, Theodore Andronikos
  • General Medicine

This paper presents an innovative entanglement-based protocol to address the Dining Cryptographers problem, utilizing maximally entangled |GHZn⟩ tuples as its core. This protocol aims to provide scalability in terms of both the number of cryptographers n and the amount of anonymous information conveyed, represented by the number of qubits m within each quantum register. The protocol supports an arbitrary number of cryptographers n, enabling scalability in both participant count and the volume of anonymous information transmitted. While the original Dining Cryptographers problem focused on a single bit of information—whether a cryptographer paid for dinner—the proposed protocol allows m, the number of qubits in each register, to be any arbitrarily large positive integer. This flexibility allows the transmission of additional information, such as the cost of the dinner or the timing of the arrangement. Another noteworthy aspect of the introduced protocol is its versatility in accommodating both localized and distributed versions of the Dining Cryptographers problem. The localized scenario involves all cryptographers gathering physically at the same location, such as a local restaurant, simultaneously. In contrast, the distributed scenario accommodates cryptographers situated in different places, engaging in a virtual dinner at the same time. Finally, in terms of implementation, the protocol accomplishes uniformity by requiring that all cryptographers utilize identical private quantum circuits. This design establishes a completely modular quantum system where all modules are identical. Furthermore, each private quantum circuit exclusively employs the widely used Hadamard and CNOT quantum gates, facilitating straightforward implementation on contemporary quantum computers.

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