DOI: 10.1002/rnc.7157 ISSN: 1049-8923

A novel saturated PID‐type observer‐based controller for wheeled mobile robots with a guaranteed performance considering path curvature

Khoshnam Shojaei
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Control and Systems Engineering


This article proposes a novel saturated PID‐type formation controller for a class of nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) of type (m, s) with mobility m and steerability s. Since the path curvature causes a severe deviation of the followers from the leaders' trajectory in the corners, a new definition of output equations is suggested to construct the coordinates of a virtual reference point in the front of each follower based on the concept of the extended look‐ahead control that utilizes a corrective angle to compensate the trajectory curvature efficiently. A nonlinear transformation and the robot's kinematic and dynamic equations are heuristically combined to develop a novel second‐order Euler–Lagrange formulation of unconstrained errors from constrained errors. Then, a novel saturated PID‐type controller is proposed for WMRs to build a desirable formation with a prescribed performance. An innovative nonlinear observer is presented to estimate followers' velocities. An efficient mixture of a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and an adaptive mechanism is proposed to compensate for model uncertainties, external disturbances, and network approximation errors. Lyapunov's direct method verifies semi‐global uniform ultimate boundedness stability by estimating a gain‐dependent region of attraction. Numerical simulations finally show the efficiency of the proposed controller.

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