DOI: 10.3390/ijms25010470 ISSN: 1422-0067

A Novel Rabbit Model of Retained Hemothorax with Pleural Organization

Christian J. De Vera, Rebekah L. Emerine, René A. Girard, Krishna Sarva, Jincy Jacob, Ali O. Azghani, Jon M. Florence, Alan Cook, Scott Norwood, Karan P. Singh, Andrey A. Komissarov, Galina Florova, Steven Idell
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Retained hemothorax (RH) is a commonly encountered and potentially severe complication of intrapleural bleeding that can organize with lung restriction. Early surgical intervention and intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy have been advocated. However, the lack of a reliable, cost-effective model amenable to interventional testing has hampered our understanding of the role of pharmacological interventions in RH management. Here, we report the development of a new RH model in rabbits. RH was induced by sequential administration of up to three doses of recalcified citrated homologous rabbit donor blood plus thrombin via a chest tube. RH at 4, 7, and 10 days post-induction (RH4, RH7, and RH10, respectively) was characterized by clot retention, intrapleural organization, and increased pleural rind, similar to that of clinical RH. Clinical imaging techniques such as ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed the dynamic formation and resorption of intrapleural clots over time and the resulting lung restriction. RH7 and RH10 were evaluated in young (3 mo) animals of both sexes. The RH7 recapitulated the most clinically relevant RH attributes; therefore, we used this model further to evaluate the effect of age on RH development. Sanguineous pleural fluids (PFs) in the model were generally small and variably detected among different models. The rabbit model PFs exhibited a proinflammatory response reminiscent of human hemothorax PFs. Overall, RH7 results in the consistent formation of durable intrapleural clots, pleural adhesions, pleural thickening, and lung restriction. Protracted chest tube placement over 7 d was achieved, enabling direct intrapleural access for sampling and treatment. The model, particularly RH7, is amenable to testing new intrapleural pharmacologic interventions, including iterations of currently used empirically dosed agents or new candidates designed to safely and more effectively clear RH.

More from our Archive