DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15122793 ISSN: 1999-4923

A Novel Handrub Tablet Loaded with Pre- and Post-Biotic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Combining Virucidal Activity and Maintenance of the Skin Barrier and Microbiome

Ana Carolina Henriques Ribeiro Machado, Laís Júlio Marinheiro, Heather Ann Elizabeth Benson, Jeffrey Ernest Grice, Tereza da Silva Martins, Alexandra Lan, Patricia Santos Lopes, Newton Andreo-Filho, Vania Rodrigues Leite-Silva
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Objective: This study aimed to develop a holobiont tablet with rapid dispersibility to provide regulation of the microbiota, virucidal activity, and skin barrier protection. Methods: A 23 factorial experiment was planned to define the best formulation for the development of the base tablet, using average weight, hardness, dimensions, swelling rate, and disintegration time as parameters to be analyzed. To produce holobiont tablets, the chosen base formulation was fabricated by direct compression of prebiotics, postbiotics, and excipients. The tablets also incorporated solid lipid nanoparticles containing postbiotics that were obtained by high-pressure homogenization and freeze-drying. The in vitro virucidal activity against alpha-coronavirus particles (CCoV-VR809) was determined in VERO cell culture. In vitro analysis, using monolayer cells and human equivalent skin, was performed by rRTq-PCR to determine the expression of interleukins 1, 6, 8, and 17, aquaporin-3, involucrin, filaggrin, FoxO3, and SIRT-1. Antioxidant activity and collagen-1 synthesis were also performed in fibroblast cells. Metagenomic analysis of the skin microbiome was determined in vivo before and after application of the holobiont tablet, during one week of continuous use, and compared to the use of alcohol gel. Samples were analyzed by sequencing the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Results: A handrub tablet with rapid dispersibility was developed for topical use and rinse off. After being defined as safe, the virucidal activity was found to be equal to or greater than that of 70% alcohol, with a reduction in interleukins and maintenance or improvement of skin barrier gene markers, in addition to the reestablishment of the skin microbiota after use. Conclusions: The holobiont tablets were able to improve the genetic markers related to the skin barrier and also its microbiota, thereby being more favorable for use as a hand sanitizer than 70% alcohol.

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