DOI: 10.3390/math12010029 ISSN: 2227-7390

A Novel Deterministic Probabilistic Forecasting Framework for Gold Price with a New Pandemic Index Based on Quantile Regression Deep Learning and Multi-Objective Optimization

Yan Wang, Tong Lin
  • General Mathematics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)

The significance of precise gold price forecasting is accentuated by its financial attributes, mirroring global economic conditions, market uncertainties, and investor risk aversion. However, predicting the gold price is challenging due to its inherent volatility, influenced by multiple factors, such as COVID-19, financial crises, geopolitical issues, and fluctuations in other metals and energy prices. These complexities often lead to non-stationary time series, rendering traditional time series modeling methods inadequate. Our paper presents a multi-objective optimization algorithm that refines the interval prediction framework with quantile regression deep learning in response to this issue. This framework comprehensively responds to gold’s financial market dynamics and uncertainties with a screening process of various factors, including pandemic-related indices, geopolitical indices, the US dollar index, and prices of various commodities. The quantile regression deep-learning models optimized by multi-objective optimization algorithms deliver robust, interpretable, and highly accurate predictions for handling non-linear relationships and complex data structures and enhance the overall predictive performance. The results demonstrate that the QRBiLSTM model, optimized using the MOALO algorithm, delivers excellent forecasting performance. The composite indicator AIS reaches −15.6240 and −11.5581 at 90% and 95% confidence levels, respectively. This underscores the model’s high forecasting accuracy and its potential to provide valuable insights for assessing future trends in gold prices. The deterministic and probabilistic forecasting framework for gold prices captures the market dynamics with the new pandemic index and comprehensively sets a new benchmark for predictive modeling in volatile market commodities like gold.

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