DOI: 10.1049/ipr2.12909 ISSN:

A novel blind tamper detection and localization scheme for multiple faces in digital images

Rasha Thabit
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Signal Processing
  • Software


Face image manipulation detection (FIMD) is a research area of great interest, widely applicable in fields requiring data security and authentication. Existing FIMD schemes aim to identify manipulations in digital face images, but they possess individual strengths and limitations. Most schemes can only detect specific manipulations under certain conditions, leading to variable success rates across different images. The literature lacks emphasis on detecting manipulations involving multiple faces. This paper introduces a novel blind tamper detection and localization scheme specifically designed for multiple faces in digital images. The proposed multiple faces manipulation detection (MFMD) scheme consists of two stages: face detection and selection, and image watermarking. Through extensive experiments, the MFMD scheme's performance has been evaluated on various multiple‐face images, considering embedding capacity, payload, watermarked image quality, time complexity, and manipulation detection ability. The results demonstrate the MFMD scheme's efficacy in detecting different types of manipulations for multiple faces in images. Furthermore, the watermarked images exhibit high visual quality, even when multiple faces are present. The scheme's efficiency recommends it for practical applications, especially in sharing personal images over unsecured networks. This research advances FIMD techniques by addressing the neglected area of multiple‐face manipulation detection. With improved accuracy, faster processing times, and resilience against various manipulations, the MFMD scheme offers valuable capabilities for enhancing data security and authentication in real‐world scenarios.

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