DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.adh3449 ISSN: 1945-0877

A noncanonical IRAK4-IRAK1 pathway counters DNA damage–induced apoptosis independently of TLR/IL-1R signaling

Yuanyuan Li, Richa B. Shah, Samanta Sarti, Alicia L. Belcher, Brian J. Lee, Andrej Gorbatenko, Francesca Nemati, Honglin Yu, Zoe Stanley, Mahbuba Rahman, Zhengping Shao, Jose M. Silva, Shan Zha, Samuel Sidi
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry

Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)–associated kinases (IRAKs) are core effectors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and IL-1R in innate immunity. Here, we found that IRAK4 and IRAK1 together inhibited DNA damage–induced cell death independently of TLR or IL-1R signaling. In human cancer cells, IRAK4 was activated downstream of ATR kinase in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Activated IRAK4 then formed a complex with and activated IRAK1. The formation of this complex required the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino1, acting structurally but not catalytically, and the activation of IRAK1 occurred independently of extracellular signaling, intracellular TLRs, and the TLR/IL-1R signaling adaptor MyD88. Activated IRAK1 translocated to the nucleus in a Pellino2-dependent manner. In the nucleus, IRAK1 bound to the PIDD1 subunit of the proapoptotic PIDDosome and interfered with platform assembly, thus supporting cell survival. This noncanonical IRAK signaling pathway was also activated in response to other DSB-inducing agents. The loss of IRAK4, of IRAK4 kinase activity, of either Pellino protein, or of the nuclear localization sequence in IRAK1 sensitized p53-mutant zebrafish to radiation. Thus, the findings may lead to strategies for overcoming tumor resistance to conventional cancer treatments.

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