DOI: 10.3390/clinpract14010018 ISSN: 2039-7283

A Narrative Review of Current Knowledge on Cutaneous Melanoma

Bogdan Marian Caraban, Mariana Aschie, Mariana Deacu, Georgeta Camelia Cozaru, Mihaela Butcaru Pundiche, Cristian Ionut Orasanu, Raluca Ioana Voda
  • General Medicine

Cutaneous melanoma is a public health problem. Efforts to reduce its incidence have failed, as it continues to increase. In recent years, many risk factors have been identified. Numerous diagnostic systems exist that greatly assist in early clinical diagnosis. The histopathological aspect illustrates the grim nature of these cancers. Currently, pathogenic pathways and the tumor microclimate are key to the development of therapeutic methods. Revolutionary therapies like targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors are starting to replace traditional therapeutic methods. Targeted therapy aims at a specific molecule in the pathogenic chain to block it, stopping cell growth and dissemination. The main function of immune checkpoint inhibitors is to boost cellular immunity in order to combat cancer cells. Unfortunately, these therapies have different rates of effectiveness and side effects, and cannot be applied to all patients. These shortcomings are the basis of increased incidence and mortality rates. This study covers all stages of the evolutionary sequence of melanoma. With all these data in front of us, we see the need for new research efforts directed at therapies that will bring greater benefits in terms of patient survival and prognosis, with fewer adverse effects.

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