DOI: 10.3390/ma17030621 ISSN: 1996-1944

A Multifunctional Cementitious Composite for Pavement Subgrade

Mohammad Jawed Roshan, Mohammadmahdi Abedi, António Gomes Correia, Raul Fangueiro, Paulo Mateus Mendes
  • General Materials Science

Premature failure and degradation of layers are the main problems for transportation infrastructure. Addressing these issues necessitates implementing structural health monitoring (SHM) for pavement construction layers. To this end, this research investigated the stress/strain and damage detection capabilities of a self-sensing cementitious composite developed for potential utilization in the construction of an intelligent subgrade layer. The prepared self-sensing cementitious composite consisted of 10% cement and hybrid conductive fillers, including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in sand. Initial findings reveal that the electrical resistivity of the composite is significantly affected by the concentration of MWCNTs/GNPs, with a minimum concentration of more than 0.5% needed to achieve a responsive cementitious composite. Moreover, the piezoresistive analysis indicates that an increase in the concentration of MWCNTs/GNPs and stress levels leads to an improvement in the stress/strain-sensing performance. When the self-sensing cementitious composite is subjected to equivalent stress levels, variations in the fractional changes in resistivity (FCR) exhibit an increasing trend with decreasing resilient modulus, stemming from a decrease in stiffness due to the increased concentration of MWCNTs/GNPs. Additionally, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis demonstrates a contraction for the Nyquist plots under compressive ramp loading prior to failure, followed by the expansion of these curves post-failure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images visually showcase the bridging effects of MWCNTs and the filling effects of GNPs within the composite structure.

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