DOI: 10.1002/qua.27324 ISSN: 0020-7608

A hybrid forces Quantum Mechanical Charge Field Molecular Dynamics of Cs+ ion in aqueous ammonia: A solvation lability, “structure breaking” phenomenon and hydrogen bond properties

Yuniawan Hidayat, Niko Prasetyo, Harno Dwi Pranowo
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


The dynamics and structure of Cs+ solvation in an aqueous ammonia solution have been investigated using the Quantum Mechanical Charge Field Molecular Dynamics (QMCF‐MD) simulation method. The system contained 18.6% ammonia in aqueous solution at 298.15 K. The QM region was set to a radius of 7.0 Å to include the first and second solvation shells. The Hartree‐Fock (HF) level was applied to calculate the ion‐ligand and ligand–ligand interactions in the QM region using the LANL2DZ‐ECP basis set for the ion and DZP‐Dunning for the ligands. The radial distribution revealed only one solvation shell, indicating a labile solvation structure. The various coordination number of ligands suggests an instant exchange between them. The mean residence times of 1.29 and 0.9 ps were less than in the pure water and liquid ammonia system, indicating higher mobility ligands of the aqueous ammonia system. The preferential factor 0.55 supports the hypothesis that the Cs+ ion prefers to be dissolved in water. As the ligands moves further away from the ion, the observed number of hydrogen bonds increases, revealing the “structure‐breaking” property of the Cs+ ion. The minimum angle ligand‐ion‐ligand tends to be higher near the ion, confirming this phenomenon.

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