DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines11082100 ISSN: 2227-9059

A Holistic Approach to Hard-to-Treat Cancers: The Future of Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma, Triple Negative Breast Cancer, and Advanced Prostate Cancer

Carles Puig-Saenz, Joshua R. D. Pearson, Jubini E. Thomas, Stéphanie E. B. McArdle
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Immunotherapy represents an attractive avenue for cancer therapy due to its tumour specificity and relatively low frequency of adverse effects compared to other treatment modalities. Despite many advances being made in the field of cancer immunotherapy, very few immunotherapeutic treatments have been approved for difficult-to-treat solid tumours such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and advanced prostate cancer (PCa). The anatomical location of some of these cancers may also make them more difficult to treat. Many trials focus solely on immunotherapy and have failed to consider or manipulate, prior to the immunotherapeutic intervention, important factors such as the microbiota, which itself is directly linked to lifestyle factors, diet, stress, social support, exercise, sleep, and oral hygiene. This review summarises the most recent treatments for hard-to-treat cancers whilst factoring in the less conventional interventions which could tilt the balance of treatment in favour of success for these malignancies.

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