A Global Analysis of Climate Change and the Impacts on Oyster DiseasesEkemini Moses Okon, Harriet Nketiah Birikorang, Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, Norhan E. Khalifa, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Moaheda E. H. Eissa, Ammar Al-Farga, Hagar Sedeek Dighiesh, El-Sayed Hemdan Eissa
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Building and Construction
Recently, global demand for seafood such oysters is increasing as consumers seek healthy and nutritive alternatives to a diet dominated by animal protein. This trend is attributed to the growing interest in sustainable seafood strategies and a surge in customer demand. Despite oysters being one of the most promising seafoods, the oyster industry faces various challenges, such as increased infectious diseases promoted by climate change, pollution, and environmental burdens. Hence, the industry’s current challenges must be addressed to ensure long-term viability. One of the current challenges in the production industry (in response to climate change) is mortality or poor product quality from microbial infection. This review reveals that climate change fosters pathogen development, significantly impacting disease spread, host susceptibility, and the survival rates of oysters. Rising temperatures, driven by climate, create favourable conditions for bacteria and viruses to multiply and spread quickly, making oysters more susceptible to diseases and ultimately adversely affecting the oyster industry. Climate-induced changes in oyster-associated microbes and pathogens, coupled with disruptions in biochemical pathways and physiological functions, can lead to increased disease outbreaks and reduced survival in the industry, impacting production and profitability. These adverse effects could result in decreased oyster supply, potentially affecting seafood markets and prices, and necessitate additional investments in disease management strategies. This review identifies and highlights how aquatic pathogens promoted by climate change will affect the oyster industry on a global scale. This review also presents an in-depth global assessment of climate change’s impacts on oysters relative to their disease exposure and pathogen spread and identifies possible future directions.