A Functional Genomics Review of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Never SmokersMohammad Hamouz, Raneem Y. Hammouz, Muhammad Ahmed Bajwa, Abdelrahman Waleed Alsayed, Magdalena Orzechowska, Andrzej K. Bednarek
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Computer Science Applications
- Molecular Biology
- General Medicine
There is currently a dearth of information regarding lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS). Additionally, there is a difference in somatic mutations, tumour mutational burden, and chromosomal aberrations between smokers and never smokers (NS), insinuating a different disease entity in LCINS. A better understanding of actionable driver alterations prevalent in LCINS and the genomic landscape will contribute to identifying new molecular targets of relevance for NS that will drastically improve outcomes. Differences in treatment outcomes between NS and smokers, as well as sexes, with NSCLC suggest unique tumour characteristics. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase mutations and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) gene rearrangements are more common in NS and have been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Moreover, NS are less likely to benefit from immune mediators including PD-L1. Unravelling the genomic and epigenomic underpinnings of LCINS will aid in the development of not only novel targeted therapies but also more refined approaches. This review encompasses driver genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of LCINS and a deeper exploration of the genomic landscape and tumour microenvironment. We highlight the dire need to define the genetic and environmental aspects entailing the development of lung cancer in NS.