DOI: 10.3390/info14090473 ISSN:

A Deep Neural Network for Working Memory Load Prediction from EEG Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

Sriniketan Sridhar, Anibal Romney, Vidya Manian
  • Information Systems

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are frequently associated with working memory (WM) dysfunction, which is also observed in various neural psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Early detection of WM dysfunction is essential to predict the onset of MCI and AD. Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based algorithms are increasingly used to identify biomarkers for detecting subtle changes in loaded WM. This paper presents an approach using electroencephalograms (EEG), time-frequency signal processing, and a Deep Neural Network (DNN) to predict WM load in normal and MCI-diagnosed subjects. EEG signals were recorded using an EEG cap during working memory tasks, including block tapping and N-back visuospatial interfaces. The data were bandpass-filtered, and independent components analysis was used to select the best electrode channels. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) algorithm was then applied to the EEG signals to obtain the time-frequency Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The EEMD and DNN methods perform better than traditional machine learning methods as well as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for the prediction of WM load. Prediction accuracies were consistently higher for both normal and MCI subjects, averaging 97.62%. The average Kappa score for normal subjects was 94.98% and 92.49% for subjects with MCI. Subjects with MCI showed higher values for beta and alpha oscillations in the frontal region than normal subjects. The average power spectral density of the IMFs showed that the IMFs (p = 0.0469 for normal subjects and p = 0.0145 for subjects with MCI) are robust and reliable features for WM load prediction.

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