DOI: 10.3390/machines11090854 ISSN:

A Deep Learning Approach to Classify and Detect Defects in the Components Manufactured by Laser Directed Energy Deposition Process

Deepika B. Patil, Akriti Nigam, Subrajeet Mohapatra, Sagar Nikam
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Systems Engineering

This paper presents a deep learning approach to identify and classify various defects in the laser-directed energy manufactured components. It mainly focuses on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures, such as VGG16, AlexNet, GoogLeNet and ResNet to perform the automated classification of defects. The main objectives of this research are to manufacture components using the laser-directed energy deposition process, prepare a dataset of horizontal wall structure, vertical wall structure and cuboid structure with three defective classes such as voids, flash formation, and rough textures, and one non-defective class, use this dataset with a deep learning algorithm to classify the defect and use the efficient algorithm to detect defects. The next objective is to compare the performance parameters of VGG16, AlexNet, GoogLeNet and ResNet used for classifying defects. It has been observed that the best results were obtained when the VGG16 architecture was applied to an augmented dataset. With augmentation, the VGG16 architecture gave a test accuracy of 94.7% and a precision of 80.0%. The recall value is 89.3% and an F1-Score is 89.5%. The VGG16 architecture with augmentation is highly reliable for automating the defect detection process and classifying defects in the laser additive manufactured components.

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