Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Abhishek De, Disha Chakraborty, Sk. S. Ahmed, Aarti Sarda

A Cross-Sectional Study to Evaluate the Alteration of Cytokine Expression and Activation of Inflammatory Pathway in Response to NOD1 and NOD2 Signal in Leprosy

  • Dermatology

Abstract Introduction: Leprae bacilli are identified as foreign by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) present in the microbes but absent in the host. The Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family comprises the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD1 and NOD2) proteins, which are two well-known PRRs. The objectives of this study were to study the expression of cytoplasmic NOD1 and NOD2 in the pathogenesis of leprosy and the serum level of expressed cytokines and to measure the messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) expression. Methods: Clinically suspected Hansen’s patients were analysed for 4 years. Newly diagnosed leprosy patients were considered leprosy disease control (LDC). The cases with active or new lesions and an increase in Bacteriological index (BI) by at least 2 + after 12 months of completion of Multidrug therapy (MDT) were considered leprosy disease relapse (LDR) cases. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals served as our control group (healthy control (HC)). enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure the concentration of five human cytokines in serum, including three pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and IL-6), one anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and one chemokine (IL-8). Quantitative expression of receptor genes (NOD1 and NOD2) and cytokine genes (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-8) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qRT-PCR). We studied NOD1 and NOD2 expression in the tissues through fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Differential NLR intracellular expression on peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and their response to stimulation with specific ligands (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP)) were studied. Results: A significant difference in the expression of the NOD1 gene was observed in unstimulated monocytes of the LDC and LDR cases when compared to HC. The NOD2 transcript level was significantly higher in stimulated monocytes from LDC and LDR patients than in similarly stimulated cells from HC. The LDC patients had a significantly higher level of pro-inflammatory cytokines as compared to the HC. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the expression of both cytokines and chemokines in response to NLR activation in the skin of leprosy patients.

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