DOI: 10.3390/ijms241612788 ISSN:

A Comparative Study on the Lysosomal Cation Channel TMEM175 Using Automated Whole-Cell Patch-Clamp, Lysosomal Patch-Clamp, and Solid Supported Membrane-Based Electrophysiology: Functional Characterization and High-Throughput Screening Assay Developme

Andre Bazzone, Maria Barthmes, Cecilia George, Nina Brinkwirth, Rocco Zerlotti, Valentin Prinz, Kim Cole, Søren Friis, Alexander Dickson, Simon Rice, Jongwon Lim, May Fern Toh, Milad Mohammadi, Davide Pau, David J. Stone, John J. Renger, Niels Fertig
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

The lysosomal cation channel TMEM175 is a Parkinson’s disease-related protein and a promising drug target. Unlike whole-cell automated patch-clamp (APC), lysosomal patch-clamp (LPC) facilitates physiological conditions, but is not yet suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) applications. Here, we apply solid supported membrane-based electrophysiology (SSME), which enables both direct access to lysosomes and high-throughput electrophysiological recordings. In SSME, ion translocation mediated by TMEM175 is stimulated using a concentration gradient at a resting potential of 0 mV. The concentration-dependent K+ response exhibited an I/c curve with two distinct slopes, indicating the existence of two conducting states. We measured H+ fluxes with a permeability ratio of PH/PK = 48,500, which matches literature findings from patch-clamp studies, validating the SSME approach. Additionally, TMEM175 displayed a high pH dependence. Decreasing cytosolic pH inhibited both K+ and H+ conductivity of TMEM175. Conversely, lysosomal pH and pH gradients did not have major effects on TMEM175. Finally, we developed HTS assays for drug screening and evaluated tool compounds (4-AP, Zn as inhibitors; DCPIB, arachidonic acid, SC-79 as enhancers) using SSME and APC. Additionally, we recorded EC50 data for eight blinded TMEM175 enhancers and compared the results across all three assay technologies, including LPC, discussing their advantages and disadvantages.

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