DOI: 10.3390/healthcare12030410 ISSN: 2227-9032

A Comparative Study of Three Dementia Screening Instruments (CSI-D, CMMSE, and ECAQ) in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Policy
  • Leadership and Management

Background—There is no validated dementia screening tool for multi-ethnic Asian populations comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. This study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI-D), Chinese Mini Mental State Examination (CMMSE), and Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ) in multi-ethnic Singapore. Methods—Participants were randomly drawn from a community-based neurological diseases study of older adults conducted in Singapore, with oversampling to allow similar subject numbers from the three major ethnicities: Chinese, Malay, and Indian. The CSI-D, CMMSE, and ECAQ were administered by trained research nurses using a standardised translated questionnaire in a language the participant was most conversant in. Participants were independently diagnosed as a case/non-case of dementia using the DSM-IV. Results—There were 259 participants (85 Chinese, 85 Malays, and 89 Indians, mean age 70.15 years, 65.4% female, 58.8% had no/minimal formal education); 22.8% (n = 59) had dementia. Correlations between the measures were substantial. All the measures had acceptable overall discriminative abilities. Diagnostic accuracies of the instruments did not differ across the ethnic groups. Effects of education were present in the cognitive screening measures. Conclusions—The CSI-D, CMMSE, and ECAQ are valid dementia instruments in this multi-ethnic Asian setting.

More from our Archive