DOI: 10.3390/foods13010055 ISSN: 2304-8158

A Comparative Study of Chemical Profiling and Bioactivities between Thai and Foreign Hemp Seed Species (Cannabis sativa L.) Plus an In-Silico Investigation

Suthinee Sangkanu, Thanet Pitakbut, Sathianpong Phoopha, Jiraporn Khanansuk, Kasemsiri Chandarajoti, Sukanya Dej-adisai
  • Plant Science
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Health (social science)
  • Microbiology
  • Food Science

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant widely used by humans for textiles, food, and medicine. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the chemical profiling of 12 hemp seed extracts from Thai (HS-TH) and foreign (HS-FS) samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Their antibacterial activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were assayed. Linoleic acid (17.63–86.53%) was a major component presented in Thai hemp seed extracts, while α,β-gluco-octonic acid lactone (30.39%), clionasterol (13.42–29.07%), and glyceryl-linoleate (15.12%) were detected as the main metabolites found in foreign hemp seed extracts. Furthermore, eight extracts from both Thai and foreign hemp seed exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Cutibacterium acnes, with MIC values ranging from 128 to 2048 µg/mL. Interestingly, the ethanol extract of Thai hemp seed (HS-TH-2-M-E) showed superior α-glucosidase inhibition (IC50 value of 33.27 ug/mL) over foreign species. The combination between Thai hemp species (HS-TH-2-M-E) and acarbose showed a synergistic effect against α-glucosidase. Furthermore, the docking investigation revealed that fatty acids had a greater impact on α-glucosidase than fatty acid esters and cannabinoids. The computational simulation predicts a potential allosteric binding pocket of guanosine on glucosidase and is the first description of gluco-octonic acid’s anti-glucosidase activity in silico. The findings concluded that Thai hemp seed could be used as a resource for supplemental drugs or dietary therapy for diabetes mellitus.

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