DOI: 10.3390/app132312900 ISSN: 2076-3417

A Cloud Coverage Image Reconstruction Approach for Remote Sensing of Temperature and Vegetation in Amazon Rainforest

Emili Bezerra, Salomão Mafalda, Ana Beatriz Alvarez, Diego Armando Uman-Flores, William Isaac Perez-Torres, Facundo Palomino-Quispe
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science

Remote sensing involves actions to obtain information about an area located on Earth. In the Amazon region, the presence of clouds is a common occurrence, and the visualization of important terrestrial information in the image, like vegetation and temperature, can be difficult. In order to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite images with cloud coverage, the inpainting approach will be applied to remove clouds and restore the image of the removed region. This paper proposes the use of the neural network LaMa (large mask inpainting) and the scalable model named Big LaMa for the automatic reconstruction process in satellite images. Experiments are conducted on Landsat-8 satellite images of the Amazon rainforest in the state of Acre, Brazil. To evaluate the architecture’s accuracy, the RMSE (root mean squared error), SSIM (structural similarity index) and PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio) metrics were used. The LST and NDVI of the reconstructed image were calculated and compared qualitatively and quantitatively, using scatter plots and the chosen metrics, respectively. The experimental results show that the Big LaMa architecture performs more effectively and robustly in restoring images in terms of visual quality. And the LaMa network shows minimal superiority for the measured metrics when addressing medium marked areas. When comparing the results achieved in NDVI and LST of the reconstructed images with real cloud coverage, great visual results were obtained with Big LaMa.