A Clinically Relevant Dosage of Mitoxantrone Disrupts the Glutathione and Lipid Metabolic Pathways of the CD-1 Mice Brain: A Metabolomics StudyAna Dias-Carvalho, Ana Margarida-Araújo, Ana Reis-Mendes, Catarina Oliveira Sequeira, Sofia Azeredo Pereira, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Félix Carvalho, Susana Isabel Sá, Eduarda Fernandes, Vera Marisa Costa
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Computer Science Applications
- Molecular Biology
- General Medicine
Long-term cognitive dysfunction, or “chemobrain”, has been observed in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Mitoxantrone (MTX) is a topoisomerase II inhibitor that binds and intercalates with DNA, being used in the treatment of several cancers and multiple sclerosis. Although MTX can induce chemobrain, its neurotoxic mechanisms are poorly studied. This work aimed to identify the adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) activated in the brain upon the use of a clinically relevant cumulative dose of MTX. Three-month-old male CD-1 mice were given a biweekly intraperitoneal administration of MTX over the course of three weeks until reaching a total cumulative dose of 6 mg/kg. Controls were given sterile saline in the same schedule. Two weeks after the last administration, the mice were euthanized and their brains removed. The left brain hemisphere was used for targeted profiling of the metabolism of glutathione and the right hemisphere for an untargeted metabolomics approach. The obtained results revealed that MTX treatment reduced the availability of cysteine (Cys), cysteinylglycine (CysGly), and reduced glutathione (GSH) suggesting that MTX disrupts glutathione metabolism. The untargeted approach revealed metabolic circuits of phosphatidylethanolamine, catecholamines, unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis, and glycerolipids as relevant players in AOPs of MTX in our in vivo model. As far as we know, our study was the first to perform such a broad profiling study on pathways that could put patients given MTX at risk of cognitive deficits.