DOI: 10.1111/mcn.13571 ISSN: 1740-8695

A blueprint for fortification planning and programming: Lessons learned from an analytical review of existing fortification frameworks

Roopa Darwar, Laura A. Rowe, Manpreet Chadha, Ana M. S. Rosas, Mandana Arabi
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health


With multiple food fortification frameworks, countries can find it challenging to determine optimal methods for planning and implementing food fortification programmes to combat vitamin and mineral deficiencies, especially without additional technical support. To address this challenge, this study aimed to review existing frameworks to determine consistencies, differences, strengths, and weaknesses across the frameworks, and based on the review findings, formulate an enhanced and streamlined fortification framework. Nineteen frameworks were ultimately examined following a comprehensive literature review and key informant interviews. Generally, the reviewed frameworks amply describe motives and methods for the determination of fortification need and feasibility, industry engagement/quality assurance and quality control, and impact evaluations/surveillance. However, there was limited inclusion or discussion throughout the reviewed frameworks around harmonization of fortification with existing micronutrient interventions; fortification policy and/or strategy; enforcement, incentives, and penalties to ensure producer compliance with industry standards; and periodic fortification programme review and reassessment. The findings were used to develop a comprehensive Fortification Blueprint that aims to provide structured guidance and a library of tools and resources to fortification programme managers and key stakeholders to ensure optimal and sustainable programme design.

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