DOI: 10.1002/elps.202300168 ISSN: 0173-0835

A bioinspired approach for the modulation of electroosmotic flow and protein–surface interactions in capillary electrophoresis using silylated amino‐amides blocks and covalent grafting

Jérémie Gouyon, Margaux Clavié, Gutiérrez‐Climente Raquel, Giang Ngo, Pascal Dumy, Pascal Etienne, Pierre Martineau, Martine Pugnière, Mehdi Ahmad, Gilles Subra, Catherine Perrin, Yoann Ladner
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry


We explore a bioinspired approach to design tailored functionalized capillary electrophoresis (CE) surfaces based on covalent grafting for biomolecules analysis. First, the approach aims to overcome well‐known common obstacles in CE protein analysis affecting considerably the CE performance (asymmetry, resolution, and repeatability) such as the unspecific adsorption on fused silica surface and the lack of control of electroosmotic flow (EOF). Then, our approach, which relies on new amino‐amide mimic hybrid precursors synthesized by silylation of amino‐amides (Si–AA) derivatives with 3‐isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane, aims to recapitulate the diversity of protein–protein interactions (π–π stacking, ionic, Van der Waals…) found in physiological condition (bioinspired approach) to improve the performance of CE protein analysis (electrochromatography). As a proof of concept, these silylated Si–AA (tyrosinamide silylation, serinamide silylation, argininamide silylation, leucinamide silylation, and isoglutamine silylation acid) have been covalently grafted in physiological conditions in different amount on bare fused silica capillary giving rise to a biomimetic coating and allowing both the modulation of EOF and protein–surface interactions. The analytical performances of amino‐amide functionalized capillaries were assessed using lysozyme, cytochrome C and ribonuclease A and compared to traditional capillary coatings poly(ethylene oxide), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate). EOF, protein adsorption rate, protein retention factor k, and selectivity were determined for each coating. All results obtained showed this approach allowed to modulate the EOF, reduce unspecific adsorption, and generate specific interactions with proteins by varying the nature and the amount of Si–AA in the functionalization mixture.

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